The Case Against Perfection: Ethics in the Age of Genetic Engineering

Michael Sandel

Michael Sandel challenges the idea of perfecting human beings and explores moral issues arising from attempts to enhance people using genetic engineering technology. 

Read More

Is There a Problem with Enhancement?

American Journal of Bioethics
Francis Kamm

This article offers an alternate suggestion as to why enhancement may be troubling and considers what we could safely enhance.

Read More

The Inevitability of Genetic Enhancement Technologies

Francoise Baylis & Jason Robert

The authors outline a number of ethical objections to genetic enhancement of human capacities and argue that they are unconvincing.

Read More

Beyond Therapy:
Biotechnology and the Pursuit of Happiness

President’s Council on Bioethics

Written by the President's Council on Bioethics after more than sixteen months of deliberations, this report studies the profound ethical and social consequences of biotechnological innovations.

Read More

Liberal Eugenics: In Defence of Human Enhancement

Nicholas Agar

This book seeks to defuse public anxieties about the use of genetic technology to enhance human capacities and defends the idea that parents should be allowed to enhance their children's genetic characteristics.

Read More

Human Enhancement

Julian Savulescu and Nick Bostrom

This edited volume offers a wide range of perspectives with respect to the issue. 

Read More

The Wisdom of Nature: An Evolutionary Heuristic for Human Enhancement

Nick Bostrom and Anders Sandberg

This chapter takes on the objection that human enhancement violates the “wisdom of nature.”

Read More

Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies (IEET)

Founded in 2004 by philosopher Nick Bostrom and bioethicist James Hughes, the IEET is an organization that seeks to understand the impact of emerging technologies on individuals and societies. One of the main topics that the organization covers is the debate over human enhancement.

Read More


Formerly the World Transhumanist Association, this is an international organization which advocates the ethical use of emerging technologies to enhance human capacities.

Read More